Tropical hardwood hammocks occur only in south Florida and are characterized by trees and shrubs on the northern edge of a range that extends southward into the Caribbean. These communities are rare along coastal uplands south of a line from about Vero Beach on the Atlantic coast to Sarasota on the Gulf coast. This cold-intolerant tropical community has very high plant species diversity, sometimes containing over 35 species of tropical trees and about 65 species of shrubs. Characteristic tropical plants include strangler fig, gumbo-limbo, ironwoods, and poisonwood. Live oak and cabbage palm are also sometimes found within this community. Extremely rare plants, like lignum vitae, mahogany, thatch palms, and manchineel, may also be found in these hammocks in the Florida Keys. Birds abound in this habitat, including the Mangrove Cuckoo and the White-crowned Pigeon.